The National Population Commission had a long history spanning over four decades. The nucleus of the agency was the National Census Board which conducted the 1973 Census and headed by the late Justice Adetokunbo Ademola. It was an adhoc body and became the National Population Bureau after the exercise.
However, the Commission had existed in its present form as a permanent and autonomous body with constitutional power since 1981 when the Late Alhaji Abdulrahman Okene was inaugurated as Chairman with members drawn from 19 states of the federation by former President Shehu Shagari. The Commission never conducted a census.
Following the military takeover of 31st December 1983 and the suspension of the 1979 Constitution, the Commission was dissolved and it reverted to National Population Bureau headed by a Director.
The Commission was reconstituted in 1988 by the Military regime of former President Ibrahim Babangida under the Chairmanship of Alhaji Shehu Musa, Makaman Nupe and six members and backed by Decree No 43 of 1989. The Shehu Musa led Commission conducted the 1991 Population Census.
Following the return to civil rule in 1999, a new Commission under the Chairmanship of Chief Samu’ila Danko Makama was inaugurated in October 2001 with members drawn from all the states of the federation and the Federal Capital Territory in line with provisions of the 1999 Constitution.
The present Commission was inaugurated in June 2012 with 37 members and the Chairman, Chief Eze Festus Odimegwu whose resignation in October 2013 paved way for the emergence of the present Chairman, Eze Duruiheoma, SAN in February 2014.